Amazon fire activity in 2020 surpasses 2019

In September, 2020 surpassed 2019 to become the most active fire year in the southern Amazon since 2012, the year that the VIIRS sensor was launched on the Suomi-NPP satellite. So far this year, the VIIRS instrument on Suomi-NPP has detected 574,000 active fires, compared with 509,000 for the same period last year. Importantly, 88% of those fire detections have occurred in just the past 60 days. The upper panel (Fig. 1a) of the graphic below compares VIIRS active fire detections, classified by fire type (colors), to the average fire detections in 2012-2019 during the same time period (black line). Deforestation fires account for >40% of all fire detections in the southern Amazon in 2020, with a growing contribution from understory forest fires in the Brazilian states of Mato Gross and Pará in the past month. Visit the new Amazon Dashboard for more information on this classification approach, or to track individual fire events in the Amazon and surrounding biomes this year.

The lower panel (Fig. 1b) of this graphic shows the cumulative fire activity over the same 60-day period for the entire VIIRS data record from 2012-2020. Whereas fire activity surged in August, 2019 from coordinated burning activity in the Brazilian Amazon, daily fire counts in 2020 were higher in the first weeks of September than in August. Large, multi-day fire events are one reason for this increase in daily fire detections as the dry season progresses in the southern Amazon. As of September 20th, thousands of large fires continued to burn in the southern Amazon, including large understory forest fires that have been burning for weeks in the Xingu River basin in Mato Grosso (Fig. 2). 

Fig. 1: Time series of active fire detections from the VIIRS instrument onboard Suomi-NPP for the southern Amazon biome. (a) 2020 fire detections stratified by fire type and (b) cumulative active fire detections by year, starting in 2012. In both panels, the black line depicts average active fire detections during 2012-2019.
Fig. 2: VIIRS active fire detections (red) on top of a VIIRS true color image highlight fires and smoke across the Xingu River basin (VIIRS image from NASA WorldView on 09/08/2020).